2013年11月8日 星期五

初探 Entity Framework 6 - Async/Await Create, Read, Update, Delete with MVC 5

初探 Entity Framework 6 前面已經說明過幾個新功能:

初探 Entity Framework 6 的 Async/Await 功能

初探 Entity Framework 6 – Logging

初探 Entity Framework 6 - Intercepting Part.1

初探 Entity Framework 6 - Intercepting Part.2

而第一篇只有針對資料讀取的部份說明而已,還沒有對新增、修改、刪除來做說明,但其實非同步的新增修改刪除並沒有什麼特別的地方,所以這一篇就以 ASP.NET MVC 5  Controller 開始來說明如何將 Controller 裡基本的 CRUD 使用非同步的方式來做處理。

 


在之前我們所建立的 IRepository<TEntity> 只有讀取資料的方法,

image

現在我們再新增三個方法,分別為 Create, Update, Delete,而且都是要使用非同步處理,

image

IRepository<TEntity> 的全貌

image

 

接著我們要在 GenericRepository<TEntity> 裡實做新增的三個方法,

image

 

這裡我另外建立的一個 Model「Member」,接下來將使用這個 Model 來建立 Controller 以及使用非同步處理 CRUD 操作,

image

image

 

建立 Controller

在「添加基架」的視窗裡,選擇「具有檢視、使用 Entity Framework 的 MVC 5 控制器」

image

接著在「加入控制器」視窗裡要勾選「使用非同步控制器動作」,記得模型類別是選擇「Member」,

SNAGHTML9b53282

完成控制器的加入操作後,會建立好 MemberController 內容以及檢視頁面,

image

image

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Data;
using System.Data.Entity;
using System.Linq;
using System.Threading.Tasks;
using System.Net;
using System.Web;
using System.Web.Mvc;
using Async.Models;
 
namespace Async.Controllers
{
    public class MemberController : Controller
    {
        private NorthwindEntities db = new NorthwindEntities();
 
        // GET: /Member/
        public async Task<ActionResult> Index()
        {
            return View(await db.Members.ToListAsync());
        }
 
        // GET: /Member/Details/5
        public async Task<ActionResult> Details(Guid? id)
        {
            if (id == null)
            {
                return new HttpStatusCodeResult(HttpStatusCode.BadRequest);
            }
            Member member = await db.Members.FindAsync(id);
            if (member == null)
            {
                return HttpNotFound();
            }
            return View(member);
        }
 
        // GET: /Member/Create
        public ActionResult Create()
        {
            return View();
        }
 
        // POST: /Member/Create
        // 若要免於過量張貼攻擊,請啟用想要繫結的特定屬性,如需
        // 詳細資訊,請參閱 http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=317598。
        [HttpPost]
        [ValidateAntiForgeryToken]
        public async Task<ActionResult> Create([Bind(Include="ID,Name,Gender,BirthDate,CreateDate,UpdateDate")] Member member)
        {
            if (ModelState.IsValid)
            {
                member.ID = Guid.NewGuid();
                db.Members.Add(member);
                await db.SaveChangesAsync();
                return RedirectToAction("Index");
            }
 
            return View(member);
        }
 
        // GET: /Member/Edit/5
        public async Task<ActionResult> Edit(Guid? id)
        {
            if (id == null)
            {
                return new HttpStatusCodeResult(HttpStatusCode.BadRequest);
            }
            Member member = await db.Members.FindAsync(id);
            if (member == null)
            {
                return HttpNotFound();
            }
            return View(member);
        }
 
        // POST: /Member/Edit/5
        // 若要免於過量張貼攻擊,請啟用想要繫結的特定屬性,如需
        // 詳細資訊,請參閱 http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=317598。
        [HttpPost]
        [ValidateAntiForgeryToken]
        public async Task<ActionResult> Edit([Bind(Include="ID,Name,Gender,BirthDate,CreateDate,UpdateDate")] Member member)
        {
            if (ModelState.IsValid)
            {
                db.Entry(member).State = EntityState.Modified;
                await db.SaveChangesAsync();
                return RedirectToAction("Index");
            }
            return View(member);
        }
 
        // GET: /Member/Delete/5
        public async Task<ActionResult> Delete(Guid? id)
        {
            if (id == null)
            {
                return new HttpStatusCodeResult(HttpStatusCode.BadRequest);
            }
            Member member = await db.Members.FindAsync(id);
            if (member == null)
            {
                return HttpNotFound();
            }
            return View(member);
        }
 
        // POST: /Member/Delete/5
        [HttpPost, ActionName("Delete")]
        [ValidateAntiForgeryToken]
        public async Task<ActionResult> DeleteConfirmed(Guid id)
        {
            Member member = await db.Members.FindAsync(id);
            db.Members.Remove(member);
            await db.SaveChangesAsync();
            return RedirectToAction("Index");
        }
 
        protected override void Dispose(bool disposing)
        {
            if (disposing)
            {
                db.Dispose();
            }
            base.Dispose(disposing);
        }
    }
}

 

修改 Controller

不過我們要置換 MemberController 裡的程式,將原本 Action 方法內直接對 EntityFramework 存取的部份換成使用 GenericRepository<TEntity>,修改後並且使用非同步處理的 MemberController 如下:

using System;
using System.Net;
using System.Threading.Tasks;
using System.Web.Mvc;
using Async.Models;
using Async.Repository;
 
namespace Async.Controllers
{
    public class MemberController : Controller
    {
        private IRepository<Member> memberRepository = new GenericRepository<Member>();
 
        public async Task<ActionResult> Index()
        {
            var result = await memberRepository.GetAllAsync();
            return View(result);
        }
 
        public async Task<ActionResult> Details(Guid? id)
        {
            if (id == null)
            {
                return new HttpStatusCodeResult(HttpStatusCode.BadRequest);
            }
            Member member = await this.memberRepository.GetAsync(x => x.ID == id.Value);
            if (member == null)
            {
                return HttpNotFound();
            }
            return View(member);
        }
 
        public ActionResult Create()
        {
            return View();
        }
 
        [HttpPost]
        [ValidateAntiForgeryToken]
        public async Task<ActionResult> Create(
            [Bind(Include = "ID,Name,Gender,BirthDate")] Member member)
        {
            if (ModelState.IsValid)
            {
                member.ID = Guid.NewGuid();
                member.CreateDate = DateTime.Now;
                member.UpdateDate = DateTime.Now;
 
                await this.memberRepository.CreateAsync(member);
                return RedirectToAction("Index");
            }
 
            return View(member);
        }
 
        public async Task<ActionResult> Edit(Guid? id)
        {
            if (id == null)
            {
                return new HttpStatusCodeResult(HttpStatusCode.BadRequest);
            }
            Member member = await this.memberRepository.GetAsync(x => x.ID == id.Value);
            if (member == null)
            {
                return HttpNotFound();
            }
            return View(member);
        }
 
        [HttpPost]
        [ValidateAntiForgeryToken]
        public async Task<ActionResult> Edit(
            [Bind(Include = "ID,Name,Gender,BirthDate")] Member member)
        {
            if (ModelState.IsValid)
            {
                Member original = await this.memberRepository.GetAsync(x => x.ID == member.ID);
 
                original.Name = member.Name;
                original.Gender = member.Gender;
                original.BirthDate = member.BirthDate;
                original.UpdateDate = DateTime.Now;
 
                await this.memberRepository.UpdateAsync(original);
                return RedirectToAction("Index");
            }
            return View(member);
        }
 
        public async Task<ActionResult> Delete(Guid? id)
        {
            if (id == null)
            {
                return new HttpStatusCodeResult(HttpStatusCode.BadRequest);
            }
            Member member = await this.memberRepository.GetAsync(x => x.ID == id.Value);
            if (member == null)
            {
                return HttpNotFound();
            }
            return View(member);
        }
 
        [HttpPost, ActionName("Delete")]
        [ValidateAntiForgeryToken]
        public async Task<ActionResult> DeleteConfirmed(Guid id)
        {
            Member member = await this.memberRepository.GetAsync(x => x.ID == id);
            await this.memberRepository.DeleteAsync(member);
            return RedirectToAction("Index");
        }
 
        protected override void Dispose(bool disposing)
        {
            if (disposing)
            {
                this.memberRepository.Dispose();
            }
            base.Dispose(disposing);
        }
 
    }
}

 

Entity Framework 6 直接提供了非同步處理的功能,這篇文章以其之前的「初探 Entity Framework 6 的 Async/Await 功能」直接跟大家說明如何在 Repository 裡建立非同步處理的方法,其實這就跟以前把 Controller 裡直接對 EF 進行資料存取操作的部份抽出來放在 Repository 的方式是一樣的,不一樣的地方在於如果要使用非同步處理就必須做調整,例如 Controller 的 Action 方法就必須要將方法簽名增加 async 關鍵字,然後 ActionResult 要修改為 Task<ActionResult>。

另外在 IRepository 以及 GenericRepository 的實作上,不需要使用非同步處理去取代原本沒有使用非同步處理的方法,兩者可以並存,在需要使用非同步處理或不需要使用的時候就可以做調正,例如原本的 GetAll 與 GetAllAsync 兩個方法,都是做同一個資料讀取的操作,差別只在於是否使用非同步處理,

image

image

 

補充 IRepository 與 GenericRepository 內容

IRepository.cs

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Linq.Expressions;
using System.Text;
using System.Threading.Tasks;
 
namespace Async.Repository
{
    public interface IRepository<TEntity> : IDisposable
        where TEntity : class
    {
        Task CreateAsync(TEntity instance);
 
        Task UpdateAsync(TEntity instance);
 
        Task DeleteAsync(TEntity instance);
 
 
        TEntity Get(Expression<Func<TEntity, bool>> predicate);
 
        Task<TEntity> GetAsync(Expression<Func<TEntity, bool>> predicate);
 
        Task<TEntity> GetWithIncludeAsync(Expression<Func<TEntity, bool>> predicate, params Expression<Func<TEntity, object>>[] includes);
 
        IQueryable<TEntity> GetAll();
 
        Task<List<TEntity>> GetAllAsync();
 
        IQueryable<TEntity> GetAllWithInclude(params Expression<Func<TEntity, object>>[] includes);
 
        Task<List<TEntity>> GetAllWithIncludeAsync(params Expression<Func<TEntity, object>>[] includes);
 
 
        IQueryable<TEntity> Find(Expression<Func<TEntity, bool>> predicate);
 
        IQueryable<TEntity> FindWithInclude(Expression<Func<TEntity, bool>> predicate, params Expression<Func<TEntity, object>>[] includes);
    }
}

GenericRepository.cs

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Data.Entity;
using System.Diagnostics;
using System.Linq;
using System.Linq.Expressions;
using System.Threading.Tasks;
using System.Web;
using Async.Models;
 
namespace Async.Repository
{
    public class GenericRepository<TEntity> : IRepository<TEntity>
        where TEntity : class
    {
        private DbContext _context
        {
            get;
            set;
        }
 
        private DbSet<TEntity> dbSet
        {
            get
            {
                return this._context.Set<TEntity>();
            }
        }
 
        public GenericRepository()
            : this(new NorthwindEntities())
        {
        }
 
        public GenericRepository(DbContext context)
        {
            if (context == null)
            {
                throw new ArgumentNullException("context");
            }
            this._context = context;
            this._context.Database.Log = (log) => Debug.WriteLine(log);
        }
 
        public async Task CreateAsync(TEntity instance)
        {
            this.dbSet.Add(instance);
            await this._context.SaveChangesAsync();
        }
 
        public async Task UpdateAsync(TEntity instance)
        {
            this._context.Entry(instance).State = EntityState.Modified;
            await this._context.SaveChangesAsync();
        }
 
        public async Task DeleteAsync(TEntity instance)
        {
            this.dbSet.Remove(instance);
            await this._context.SaveChangesAsync();
        }
 
 
        public TEntity Get(Expression<Func<TEntity, bool>> predicate)
        {
            return this.dbSet.FirstOrDefault(predicate);
        }
 
        public async Task<TEntity> GetAsync(Expression<Func<TEntity, bool>> predicate)
        {
            return await this.dbSet.FirstOrDefaultAsync(predicate);
        }
 
        public async Task<TEntity> GetWithIncludeAsync(Expression<Func<TEntity, bool>> predicate, params Expression<Func<TEntity, object>>[] includes)
        {
            var query = this.dbSet.AsQueryable();
 
            if (includes != null)
            {
                query = includes.Aggregate(
                    query,
                    (current, include) => current.Include(include));
            }
 
            var result = query.FirstOrDefaultAsync(predicate);
            return await result;
        }
 
        public IQueryable<TEntity> GetAll()
        {
            return this.dbSet.AsQueryable();
        }
 
        public async Task<List<TEntity>> GetAllAsync()
        {
            return await this.dbSet.ToListAsync();
        }
 
        public IQueryable<TEntity> GetAllWithInclude(params Expression<Func<TEntity, object>>[] includes)
        {
            var query = this.dbSet.AsQueryable();
 
            if (includes != null)
            {
                query = includes.Aggregate(
                    query,
                    (current, include) => current.Include(include));
            }
 
            return query;
        }
 
        public async Task<List<TEntity>> GetAllWithIncludeAsync(params Expression<Func<TEntity, object>>[] includes)
        {
            var query = this.dbSet.AsQueryable();
 
            if (includes != null)
            {
                query = includes.Aggregate(
                    query,
                    (current, include) => current.Include(include));
            }
 
            return await query.ToListAsync();
        }
 
        public IQueryable<TEntity> Find(Expression<Func<TEntity, bool>> predicate)
        {
            return this.dbSet.Where(predicate);
        }
 
        public IQueryable<TEntity> FindWithInclude(Expression<Func<TEntity, bool>> predicate, params Expression<Func<TEntity, object>>[] includes)
        {
            var query = this.dbSet.AsQueryable();
            if (includes != null)
            {
                query = includes.Aggregate(
                    query,
                    (current, include) => current.Include(include));
            }
            return query.Where(predicate);
        }
 
        public void Dispose()
        {
            this.Dispose(true);
            GC.SuppressFinalize(this);
        }
 
        protected virtual void Dispose(bool disposing)
        {
            if (disposing)
            {
                if (this._context != null)
                {
                    this._context.Dispose();
                    this._context = null;
                }
            }
        }
 
    }
}

 

如果對於 Async/Await 的概念與操作還尚未了解的話,可以先仔細閱讀以下連結的文件說明,

MSDN - 使用 Async 和 Await 設計非同步程式 (C# 和 Visual Basic)

 

以上

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